Published in Wise Traditions in Food, Farming and the Healing Arts, the journal of the Weston A. Price Foundation, Winter 2003, www.westonaprice.org, (202) 333-H
The eight categories of sugar alcohols may be subdivided into mono-, di- and polysaccharides.
MONOSACCHARIDES include sorbitol (derived from glucose, 50 percent to 70 percent as sweet as sucrose, GRAS status), xylitol (derived from xylan, a substance found in the bark of birch trees, equally sweet as sucrose, GRAS status), mannitol (derived from glucose syrups, 50 percent to 70 percent as sweet as sucrose, permitted for limited use on an interim basis by the FDA) and erythritol (derived from corn products,95 70 percent as sweet as sucrose, GRAS status).
DISACCHARIDES include lactitol (derived from lactose, 30 percent to 40 percent as sweet as sucrose, GRAS status), maltitol (derived from maltose, 90 percent as sweet as sucrose, GRAS status) and isomalt (derived from enzymatically-treated sucrose, 45 percent to 65 percent as sweet as sucrose, GRAS status).
POLYSACCHARIDES refers to a family of sweeteners including hydrogenated glucose syrups, maltitol syrups and sorbitol syrups, often called ¡§hydrogenated starch hydrolysates¡¨ because they are produced by the partial hydrolysis of corn, wheat or potato starch and subsequent hydrogenation at high temperatures and pressure. By varying this manufacturing process, different end products may be created to meet different requirements of the food processing industry. When the final product contains 50 percent or more of hydrogenated glucose, it is called a hydrogenated glucose syrup. If the final product has 50 percent or more of maltitol or sorbitol, it is named accordingly as either a maltitol syrup or sorbitol syrup. Some of the end products do not contain a specific sugar alcohol in any clear majority; these are simply referred to by the generalized term¡Xhydrogenated starch hydrolysate. This term, or the abbreviation ¡§HSH,¡¨ may correctly be applied to any of these products. All HSH products have a GRAS status and are variously from 25 percent to 50 percent as sweet as sucrose.96,97
Having now dealt with all of the currently-approved and pending non-nutritive sweeteners, we must return our attention briefly to the so-called ¡§nutritive¡¨ sweeteners. To deal with this category, we must first rid ourselves of the silly idea that the word ¡§nutritive¡¨ necessarily indicates that a substance will contribute anything positive to our general well being. The FDA and ADA consider nutritive sweeteners to include anything from raw honey, pure maple syrup, molasses, sorghum or other nutritious options, to such dietary dead-ends as white sugar, high fructose corn syrup and concentrated fruit juices.
The so-called nutritive sweeteners include a class of substances known variously as sugar alcohols, polyols, polyalcohols or polyhydric acids. These are the substances which are usually, but not always, identifiable by the suffix ¡§-itol¡¨¡Xsorbitol, xylitol, mannitol, erythritol, lactitol, maltitol, isomalt and hydrogenated starch hydrolysates (HSH). Scientists call them sugar alcohols because part of their structure chemically resembles sugar and part is similar to alcohol, but they don¡¦t completely fit into either category.93 Each of these substances has its own particular history, but mercifully¡Xfor the purpose of brevity¡Xthey all share a great deal of similarity.
Although several sugar alcohols are touted as naturally occurring in various foods¡Xwhich is technically true¡Xall commercially-available sugar alcohols are synthesized by the hydrogenation of sugars from various sources.94 While the author could not find any information commenting on this fact, the use of a hydrogenation process may or may not be of concern. Hydrogenation of fats and oils is certainly detrimental to the nutritive qualities of said items, but the process must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Hydrogenating (adding hydrogen to) water will simply yield hydrogen peroxide, a substance that can be quite beneficial to human health with the proper usage. One must keep in mind, however, that fats and oils were hydrogenated for some time before we became aware of the detrimental effects of this practice. If anyone has bothered to specifically research the effects of hydrogenating sugars, that information is not readily available at this time.
According to the American Dietetics Association: ¡§[Sugar alcohols] can . . . be categorized as sugar replacers because they can replace sugar sweeteners, usually on a one-to-one basis; offer less energy; and offer potential health benefits, such as reduced glycemic response and reduced dental caries risk.¡¨98
It should be noted that lactitol, mannitol and some of the hydrogenated starch hydrolysates have less than half of the sweetening power of sucrose, and for this reason are usually employed for other purposes. Mannitol is frequently used as a dusting agent on chewing gum, intended to prevent the gum from sticking to the wrapper. Sweeteners from the HSH family commonly serve as viscosity or bodifying agents, humectants, crystallization modifiers, cryoprotectants, and rehydration aids. Lactitol frequently finds its way into blends with more potent sweeteners, such as aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame-K. Whatever their intended usage, all of the sugar alcohols are touted as being safe for diabetics and hypoglycemics, lower in calories than sugar, and non-contributory towards tooth decay and the growth of intestinal yeasts.
Xylitol has the additional claims of increasing absorption of B-vitamins and calcium, re-mineralizing tooth enamel and fighting/preventing ear infections,99 as well as possibly contributing to fresher breath, greater athletic performance, and recovery from sinus infections.100 It also takes the prize as the sweetener with the most bizarre application¡Xa Japanese company recently began to market a line of women¡¦s t-shirts with xylitol infused into the fabric. Xylitol, like several other sugar alcohols, exhibits a cooling effect in the mouth. The t-shirts are intended to utilize this same property to keep a person cooler in warm weather.101
It is interesting to note that even the manufacturers and the official regulatory bodies hint at the potential problems with sugar alcohols. According to the ADA website: ¡§All [sugar alcohols] are absorbed slowly and incompletely from the intestine by passive diffusion. Therefore, an excessive load (e.g., greater than 50 g sorbitol per day, greater than 20 g mannitol per day) may cause diarrhea. . . . [I]ncomplete absorption causes indirect metabolism of [sugar alcohols] via fermentive (sic) degradation by the intestinal flora. The energy return from indirect metabolism is less than the direct route; thus, [sugar alcohols] are referred to as reduced-energy or low-energy sweeteners. [The] FDA allows these nutritive sweeteners to be labeled as having fewer kilocalories per gram than other nutritive sweeteners. . . . Products with sorbitol and mannitol may have the following statement on the label because high intakes increase the risk of malabsorption: ¡¥excess consumption may have a laxative effect.¡¦¡¨102
The ADA description hints at more than it actually says. Sugar alcohols are not broken down in the stomach, so they make their way intact into the bowels. It is here in the bowels that the ¡§passive diffusion¡¨ mentioned by the ADA takes place, meaning that the presence of the sugar alcohols draws water into the bowels. This leads to the fermentation by undesirable bacteria and a resultant partial degradation or ¡§metabolism¡¨ of the sugar alcohols. (This fermentation of intestinal bacteria can lead to or exacerbate problems with candida and other yeast problems.) The direct result of this chain of events is the severe stomach cramping and diarrhea that many people experience after ingesting too much sugar alcohol. So how much is too much? The above quotation lists the official, generally agreed upon thresholds for sorbitol and mannitol, but each sugar alcohol has its own threshold. However, certain individuals have been known to experience reactions at much lower dosages. Lactitol in particular may be problematic in small doses, especially for lactose-sensitive individuals.103,104
Stomach cramping and diarrhea are certainly not as serious as the conditions associated with some of the non-nutritive sweeteners, but the sugar alcohols can cause other more serious problems. One of these conditions is metabolic acidosis, which can lead to acid reflux and an increased risk of cancer of the larynx. And diabetics and hypoglycemics should be aware that sugar alcohols do raise blood sugar levels, although not as much as sugar. Sugar alcohols also promote dehydration and loss of electrolytes, creating feelings of excessive thirst. This is a potential concern to those who consume a lot of low-carb, energy bar types of foods. Exercising after consuming these types of products may put one at risk for heat stroke, muscle cramping and cardiovascular problems. Those who are trying to avoid carbohydrates and burn body fat should also know that sugar alcohols will immediately take the body out of ketosis, the state wherein fat reserves rather than dietary calories are being metabolized. . . assuming that the body was in a state of ketosis to begin with.
Additional concerns with sugar alcohols stem from the fact that they seem to increase the frequency of seizures in epileptics, and children are especially sensitive to the gastrointestinal side effects, possibly due to their propensity for bingeing on sweet foods. Children who regularly consume sugar alcohols also seem to have an increased incidence of childhood obesity.105
The final word on sugar alcohols as a group seems to be a mixed message. The evidence does seem to support the positive claims made on behalf of these sweeteners, and perhaps this gives them a valid place in certain applications. For example, given the choice between treating a child¡¦s ear infection with a course of antibiotics or with administration of a therapeutic dose of xylitol, the latter option would certainly be preferable. Of course, there may be even better options.
While sugar alcohols may indeed occur in nature, their usage as sweeteners also suffers from the same problem as many other sweeteners, pharmaceutical drugs and other substances today¡Xone single factor from a natural food item is being isolated from its normal co-constituents and consumed at levels that are difficult to obtain when eating the food item itself. Rarely, if ever, does this situation lend itself to good health. While sugar alcohols are certainly the lesser of two evils when compared to the non-nutritive sweeteners, they should be consumed with prudence if at all. There are better choices.
Having reviewed all of the non-nutritive sweeteners and the sugar alcohols, we enter into the murky, little-known world of ¡§what else is out there.¡¨ There are a number of additional substances that defy clear inclusion into the previously discussed categories. Some of the remaining sweeteners are not classified by the FDA as being sweeteners at all, yet they undeniably possess some degree of sweetness. To generalize, all of these substances share a relatively limited degree of market share, name recognition, general availability and usage by the food industry or at-home consumers, but they are still worth reviewing. Any one of them just may turn up on a product label one day, and having some knowledge of what a substance is may help each of us to make informed purchases. Some additional sweeteners are tagalose, trehalose and neohesperidin dihyrochalcone (NHDC).
Tagatose, known scientifically as D-tagatose, is very new to the sweetening scene and there is comparatively little to be said about it. It was discovered in 1988 by scientists working for a Beltsville, Maryland corporation called Biospherics (the company name has since been changed to Spherix). Tagatose is 92 percent as sweet as sucrose and is said to occur ¡§naturally¡¨ in heated cow¡¦s milk and some other presumably heat-treated dairy products. . . so it seems that tagatose only occurs ¡§in nature¡¨ to the same extent that heat-treated dairy products occur ¡§in nature.¡¨ It is formed as a result of changes to lactose as heat is applied. Commercially available tagatose is synthetically produced from whey.
Tagatose has the exact same chemical formula as ordinary fructose, but the molecular structures of the two are slightly different. The difference is virtually irrelevant to your tongue, but the digestive system has no idea how to handle this unnatural molecule, just as the body cannot properly assimilate many synthetic vitamins, which are mirror images of their natural counterparts. This may be why consumption of tagatose in large amounts reportedly causes gastrointestinal distress, including diarrhea, nausea and flatulence. Only about 20 percent of ingested tagatose is absorbed, this taking place by means of metabolism in the small intestine.106
Tagatose manufacturers have presented their product as a virtual panacea, claiming that it promotes weight loss, is safe for diabetics, shows potential as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of type II diabetes, reduces ¡§spiking¡¨ of blood glucose levels, fights plaque and halitosis, is a prebiotic (provides food for healthy intestinal bacteria), fights colon cancer, combats certain types of pathogenic bacteria and microorganisms, and raises blood levels of the ¡§good¡¨ HDL-cholesterol.
In 1996, Spherix granted a license to Arla Foods of Denmark to produce and market the sweetener. While a few other countries had previously given a green light to tagatose, in April of 2001 the FDA accepted it as a GRAS substance for use in foods, beverages, cosmetics, toothpastes and pharmaceutical drugs. However, Spherix is currently arbitrating a legal dispute against Arla Foods concerning the new sweetener, thus delaying the entry of tagatose into the US market. It is not yet available as a commercial tabletop sweetener, and it was as recently as August 21, 2003, that 7-Eleven Inc. became the very first American company to use tagatose (marketed by Spherix as Naturlose) in a food or beverage¡Xa Diet-Pepsi-flavored Slurpee drink. We can expect to see much more of Naturlose/tagatose in the future, as Arla Foods and Spherix are both actively promoting its use around the world.107
Trehalose, a disaccharide composed of two glucose molecules, is only 45 percent as sweet as sucrose. It is also referred to as ƒÑ,ƒÑ-Trehalose, mushroom sugar or mycose, but its proper chemical name is ƒÑ-D-glucopyranosyl ƒÑ-D-glucopyranoside. It was first identified as a constituent in the ergot of rye in 1832, even before the discovery of saccharin. (Ergot is a fungus known to afflict rye and other cereal grains and grasses.) The term ¡§trehalose¡¨ was coined in later years when the same substance was identified as a component of the secretions of a beetle in the Iraqi desert. These secretions, known by native peoples to be edible and sweet, were called the ¡§trehala manna.¡¨ Some people believe that this is a similar substance to the manna that was gathered and eaten by the Israelites of the Old Testament.
Trehalose occurs naturally in a number of foods, including honey, wines, sherries, breads, lobster, crab, prawns, brine shrimp, various edible fungi (including commercially-grown mushrooms), insects, baker¡¦s yeast and brewer¡¦s yeast. As such, it has always been a part of the human diet, but has only been available as an isolated ingredient since 1995. Previously it had been too expensive to extract or produce commercially, but Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories of Okayama, Japan developed a feasible method using the action of soil microorganisms on starch. Hayashibara¡¦s trehalose is the only source currently in production, and Japan is by far the largest consumer of products containing trehalose.
When trehalose is ingested, it undergoes a similar digestive process as other disaccharides; it is enzymatically broken into individual glucose molecules which the body then metabolizes. As with lactose (another disaccharide) which requires a special enzyme, lactase, to break it down, a small percentage of people are genetically prone towards deficiency in trehalase, the enzyme that metabolizes trehalose. These people may experience intestinal distress after consuming foods containing trehalose, whether they be natural sources of the sugar or not. This appears to be the only safety issue with trehalose.
The low level of sweetness has limited the applications of trehalose as a sweetening agent, but it has not stopped the food industry from finding other uses. Its potential applications include stabilizing proteins in dried or frozen foods, stabilizing flavors, colors and fatty acids, and maintaining the texture of food coatings. Trehalose was given GRAS status in the US in October of 2000 and is approved as a food additive in Britain, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. Trehalose is not commercially available to consumers anywhere at this time.108
Next on the list is neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, usually abbreviated to NHDC or neohesperidin DC. NHDC is a type of flavonoid, a broad term referring to a group of over 4000 substances known to occur naturally in all higher forms of plants. (A particularly beneficial subset of the flavonoids is the bioflavonoids, which are sometimes collectively called ¡§Vitamin P.¡¨) NHDC is grouped as a flavonoid, yet it has not been discovered anywhere in a naturally-occurring state.
In 1963, NHDC was discovered by two researchers by the names of Horowitz and Gentili who were studying bitter compounds found in citrus fruits. After experimentally hydrogenating a particular citrus phenolic glycoside, they observed that the resultant compound was very sweet, 1500 to 1800 times sweeter than sucrose. The two then performed similar experiments on other citrus derivatives and discovered several additional sweet compounds, but it was only the original product, NHDC, which would go on to have commercial application.
Industry-sponsored tests did not find any safety issues with the use of NHDC, and also ruled that it does not promote cavities. NHDC does not function well as the sole sweetening agent in food items due to its slow onset of sweetness and a lingering menthol or licorice aftertaste. For these and other reasons, it has found more favor as a component of sweetener blends and as a flavor-modifying/enhancing agent. NHDC has been accorded various levels of regulatory status around the world. The European Union, Switzerland, the Czech Republic and Turkey allow it to be used as a sweetener. Australia and New Zealand allow NHDC as an artificial flavoring. In the U.S., it is only allowed as a flavor ingredient (used at levels below the threshold of sweetness) in 16 food categories. NHDC is marketed world-wide under the name Citrosa by the Spanish-based Exquim, S.A. company, a subsidiary of the pharmaceutical group Ferrer Internacional, S.A.109,110,111
Clearly, most artificial sweeteners in use today pose significant dangers. Mother Nature did not intend for us to suffer from the Sugar-Free Blues. There are many healthy alternatives to both refined sugar and artificial sweeteners, including maple syrup, dehydrated sugar cane juice (sold as Sucanat and Rapadura), date sugar, raw unfiltered honey and molasses. Consumed in moderation as part of a nutrient-dense diet that includes plenty of good quality fats, these mineral-rich, naturally sweet foods allow us to enjoy the sweet taste while nourishing the body at the same time. In strict moderation, they can even be used by diabetics in conjunction with a nutrient-dense, high-fat diet.
Many healthful and promising alternative sweeteners are now available to the informed consumer; please note that most of the good options are provided to us by plants and herbs, while most of the bad options have been created in laboratories.
THAUMATIN: A naturally-occurring sweet protein, 3000 times sweeter than sucrose, thaumatin is derived from the berries of the West African Katemfe plant, also called the sweet prayer plant and the miracle plant, botanically known as Thaumatococcus daniellii. Thaumatin is metabolized by the human body similarly to other proteins. The compound, marketed as Talin, is produced by a British subsidiary of The Braes Group, Overseal Foods, Ltd.112 It has been given GRAS status in the US, but is only allowed as a flavor enhancer in flavoring agents, animal feeds, oral care products and beverages. It is also used in other countries in sweetener blends, chewing gums, vitamin tablets, baked goods, dairy products and pharmaceuticals.113 While Talin is not commercially available to the average consumer in this country, it is possible to order the dried, unprocessed fruit for $30 an ounce (!) at www.bouncingb.com/thaumatococcus_daniellii.php.
STEVIA: Derived from a Paraguayan herb, the leaves of the stevia plant average at about 30 times sweeter than sucrose.114 Stevia leaf and its derivative stevioside are virtually calorie-free, beneficial in the prevention of cavities and do not trigger a rise in blood sugar. They are not only safe for diabetics and hypoglycemics, but in some countries mineral-rich stevia leaves are even prescribed as a medicinal substance for these conditions because they are said to normalize pancreatic function and thus aid in the metabolism of sugar.115 When applied topically, stevia leaves also fight acne and speed wound healing while also reducing the formation of scar tissue.116 For over 25 years, the Japanese have used stevia and its extracts as a tabletop sweetener and in soft drinks, baked goods, pickles, fruit juices, jams and jellies, candies, yogurts, pastries, chewing gum, sherbets, toothpaste and tobacco products. It has reportedly captured over 50 percent of the Japanese sweetening market,117 even though the Japanese technically classify it as a food additive. In all this time, there have never been any reports of toxicity or adverse reactions to its usage. Stevia is also used as a sweet food additive in South Korea, Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, and as a dietary supplement in China, western Europe and the US.118 However, due to pressure from G D Searle and Monsanto, the FDA does not allow stevia to be used as an additive. For more information on stevia, see The Stevia Story: A Tale of Incredible Sweetness & Intrigue, by Bill and Linda Bonvie and Donna Gates.
LICORICE ROOT contains a sweetening compound called glycyrrhizin (or also glycyrrhizic acid), which is between 50 and 100 times sweeter than sucrose, but it also imparts a definite and familiar aftertaste of licorice. Due to its low sweetness in comparison to many artificial sweeteners and strong aftertaste, it has not enjoyed much success as a commercial sweetener. The exception to this is its use in herbal tea blends, where the licorice aftertaste may be blended quite well with other tastes. Licorice and glycyrrhizin have a long historical record of the safety and are widely used in Japan for sweetening foods, beverages, medicines and tobacco. Within the US, glycyrrhizin has GRAS status as a flavoring agent, but is not allowed as a sweetener.119
LO HAN KUO is a sweet Chinese fruit in the cucumber, melon, squash, and gourd family which has the potential similar to that of stevia. Long used in the southern provinces of China for centuries as a sweetener and a medicinal herb for the treatment of lung congestion, colds, sore throats and minor stomach and intestinal problems, Lo Han Kuo and its derivatives have no record of any adverse reaction.130,131,132 As with stevia, the human digestive system is unable to break down the sweet compounds within Lo Han fruit. Consequently, it triggers no rise in blood sugar levels and is completely safe for diabetics and hypoglycemics. It also helps promote the metabolization of stored body fat. Modern scientific research has shown that Lo Han extracts help relieve gastritis, constipation and respiratory inflammations, and they also appear to inhibit the Epstein-Barr virus and display anti-carcinogenic properties.133 While the FDA has not made any conclusive rulings upon the status of Lo Han and its extractives, they are currently available to US consumers and have not been opposed in any way by regulatory authorities. It is available as Slim & Sweet from Wisdom Natural Brands (www.wisdomherbs.com) and SweetLIFE from Chi Fai¡¦s Inc. (www.chifaisgourmet.com/CFSweetLIFE2.htm). Dried Lo Han fruit is frequently available in Chinese and Oriental markets, or may be ordered online at www.chinanaturalproduct.com/whole_dried_Lo_Han_Kuo_fruit.htm.
GLYCERINE is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid with a very sweet and slightly astringent taste. Molecules of glycerine form the structural backbone of nearly all vegetable oils and animal fats. Glycerine is not chemically related to sugar and seems to have a very negligible effect on insulin and blood sugar levels, thus making it a safe sweetener for diabetics, hypoglycemics and people with Candida yeast problems. Frontier Natural Products is one reliable source, available on the internet at www.frontiercoop.com/shop/merchant.mvc (search under the ¡§glycerin¡¨ spelling). An excellent resource for recipes using glycerine as a sweetener is The Complete Candida Cookbook, by Gail Burton.
FRUCTOOLIGOSACCHARIDES (FOS) and inulin are terms referring to naturally occurring, mildly sweet, indigestible carbohydrates. FOS are structurally built out of chains of fructose molecules, with the chains ranging from 2 to 60 units long. FOS are commonly extracted from chicory roots and Jerusalem artichokes as it occurs in relatively large quantities in these items, but they are also found in over 36,000 plants worldwide including onions, leeks, garlic, common artichokes, bananas, rye, barley, dandelion leaves, burdock roots and honey.134 Often used as a fat-replacer in low-fat foods, FOS do have some potential as a sweetening substance. They do not affect blood sugar levels, and so are suitable for diabetics and hypoglycemics.135 FOS cannot be broken down by the human digestive system, but they can be broken down and consumed by the bacteria in the digestive tract. For this reason, FOS are considered to be prebiotic¡Xa substance which provides nourishment for the gastrointestinal flora. Prebiotics, like probiotics (such as live-culture yogurt¡Xsubstances which actually contain the same bacteria which are the beneficial flora in the human digestive tract), help promote regularity, prevent yeast overgrowth and are beneficial for those with Crohn¡¦s disease, colitis or who are on kidney dialysis. However, FOS will provide nourishment for friendly bacteria (lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, etc.) and pathogenic bacteria (E. coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Clostridium, etc.) alike, leading to various kinds of intestinal distress and gas.136 Standardized extracts of long-chain inulin have been developed to selectively nourish only the friendly flora. Due to the relatively low sweetness of FOS and inulin, it is easier to use it for sweetening purposes in combination with another sweet substance. While FOS products are commercially available from different sources, the author recommends an inulin product called Chicolin, from BioQuest Imports International, Inc. (www.greenalive.com/chicolin.html). Chicolin has recommended specifications for blending with stevia to achieve a desirable level of sweetness.
Jim Earles is a Kundalini Yoga teacher and Weston Price enthusiast who resides in Dubuque, Iowa with his wife Amber and children Sienna and Connor. He may be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org
(All web addresses were visited on or before October, 12, 2003)
4. Alternative Sweeteners, Third Edition. Lyn O¡¦Brien Nabors (editor)
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112. Information taken from a personal e-mail exchange with Overseal Color, Inc.
113. Alternative Sweeteners, Third Edition. Lyn O¡¦Brien Nabors (editor)
114. Information taken from Wisdom Natural Brands stevia product brochures
116. Wisdom Natural Brands stevia product brochures
118. Alternative Sweeteners, Third Edition. Lyn O¡¦Brien Nabors (editor)
119. Alternative Sweeteners, Third Edition. Lyn O¡¦Brien Nabors (editor)
120. ¡§Lo Han: A Natural Sweetener Comes of Age,¡¨ Whole Foods, June 2003, by Peilin Guo and Dallas Clouatre.
121. Alternative Sweeteners, Third Edition. Lyn O¡¦Brien Nabors (editor)
123. ¡§Lo Han: A Natural Sweetener Comes of Age,¡¨ Whole Foods, June 2003, by Peilin Guo and Dallas Clouatre.
125. Alternative Sweeteners, Third Edition. Lyn O¡¦Brien Nabors (editor)
For more information, click the following link:
Jim Earles is a Kundalini Yoga teacher and Weston Price enthusiast who resides in Dubuque, Iowa with his wife Amber and children Sienna and Connor. He may be contacted at email@example.com